Fromell, H., Grohmann, T., and Lensink, R. (2020). Remittances and Development. In J.Y. Abor, C.K.D. Adjasi, and R. Lensink (eds), Contemporary Issues in Development Finance (pp. 104–39). Routledge.
Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. (2018). Ontwikkeling en migratie (IOB Studie nr. 427). Contribution as external researcher.
Work in Progress
Cultural Similarity and Migration
This study brings established gravity estimation practices from the trade to the migration literature and investigates whether cultural similarity between countries has a positive effect on migration flows as suggested by theory. In my preferred specification, I use lagged time-varying similarity variables in a panel of international and domestic migration flows (>200 countries, 1990-2019, 5-year intervals) and estimate a theory-consistent structural gravity model with origin-year, destination-year, and corridor fixed effects. Contrary to previous studies, I do not find positive, significant effects of cultural similarity on migration. In fact, religious similarity has a significant, negative effect on migration, while similarity in survey-based cultural attitudes is insignificant. Further results suggest that these findings may be explained by cultural selection and sorting of migrants who are attracted by destinations that are culturally similar to their personal cultural beliefs rather than the average cultural beliefs of their home country. Also the results of a two-stage fixed effects (TSFE) procedure and a gravity-specific matching estimator, which allow estimation of time-invariant similarity variables, confirm that the relationship between cultural similarity and migration is more nuanced than previously thought.
Stereotypes, Identity and Effort: Do stereotypes affect effort provision of natives and immigrants differently?with Hanna Fromell
We explore the extent to which negative stereotyping influences individual behavior. In an online laboratory experiment, we manipulate the perceptions of university students about the prevalence of the stereotype that 'young people are lazy'. We assess their responses by comparing effort in a real-effort task. Our findings show no significant aggregate treatment effects, nor any differential responses between those who strongly identify as hardworking versus those who don't. However, we observe that migrant participants lower their effort more in comparison to non-migrants when the stereotype is more prevalent. This suggests that individuals belonging to minority groups, who regularly face stereotypes and social identity challenges, may become particularly susceptible to additional negative stereotyping.
Measures of International Migration: Which one should I use?with Hanna Fromell
This projects evaluates the differences between measures of international migration. Because direct measures of migration flows are often not available, practitioners have to choose between a number of proxy measures. Our results suggest that more recent, stock-based demographic accounting measures approximate actual migration flows better than simpler stock differences that have been used by practitioners in the past. We show that using the different available measures in a gravity model can lead to differing conclusions regarding the determinants of international migration.